Time Study Techniques || Industrial Engineering

Work measurement, not the worker

Time study is the main tool of work measurement by Industrial Engineering or work study. It called also capacity study. We can practice it in every product in our daily lives. Not only it is bound in Industrial Boundary. The time study techniques are directly linked to work measurement factors.

Work Measurement Techniques & Tools || Industrial Engineering


What is the Time Study?

Time study is a program of direct observation. It is a work measurement tool for recording the time of performing a certain specific job or its element carried out under specific conditions and for analyzing the data to obtain the time necessary for an operator to carry at a defined rate of performance. 

Why it is necessary?

  • To give the systematic, specification of work.
  • To identify subsequent omissions or insertions of elements (when the standards are queried)
  • The operator may not work at the same pace.
  • To extract the time for certain parts.
  • To keep the concentration of the Industrial Engineer.
  • To complete the time study you have to need to take some steps.


Break down the work into elements:

For observing the time study you have needed to break down the work into elements. As sewing time is short but handling time is long.


How elements are selected?

We can select the elements.

Easily identifiable beginnings and endings (Breakpoint).

As shorts as can be conveniently timed ( between 6-13 cm).

Represent naturally unified distinct segments of operation.

Separate machine and manual elements if possible.

Elements that do not occur every cycle should be timed separately.

Before starting a time study you have obeyed some rules.

▫ To Make sure

  1. Method study has been done 
  2. The method should produce the required quality.
  3. For new methods plenty of time to settle down
  4. Inform the supervisor before starting.
  5. The operator not be disturbed during the study.
  6. Ensure goods have enough supply.
  7. Stand diagonally behind the operator about 1.5-2m
  8. Take more than twenty observation 
  9. Record relevant details about the method and the machine.


▫ Steps 

  • Break the work into elements
  • Measure the cycle times with a rating
  • Calculate the average time for operation
  • Convert the observe time into basic time
  • Give the necessary allowances
  • Install the standard minute value.

A case example

Operation Name: Bottom hem Top Stc
Cycle time O/T (In cm)
95
93
94
93
96
90
93
93
94
95
Total time= 936 cm or 9.36 mins
Average time = 9.36/10=.94 
Capacity= 60/.94
             =64 pcs

There have Different types of allowances for time study. Allowances mainly depended on the basic time. There are three types of allowances.

  1. Relaxation Allowance (R/A): Relaxation allowance means time allowed for personal need and relieves fatigue depend upon working conditions.
  2. Machine delay allowances (MDA): Time allowed for the unavoidable delay in machines. Such as bobbin change, thread breakage, Needle broken, Needle change, Rethreading, etc.
  3. Contingency Allowance (C/A): contingency allowance means other unavoidable delays occur during work
  4. Power failure:   It means electric, air compressor or any other power failure making a break into the work.
  5. For action and instruction: To give any instruction to the worker creating a delay to work.
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